Monday, September 10, 2012
John H. Patrick is my Great grandfather. This is his signature from his Land Entry File. A Land Entry File is the record that documents the transfer of public lands from the United States to private ownership.
From the National Archives website :
"The Homestead Act established a three-fold homestead acquisition process: filing an application, improving the land, and filing for deed of title. Any U.S. citizen, or intended citizen, who had never borne arms against the U.S. Government could file an application and lay claim to 160 acres of surveyed Government land. For the next 5 years, the homesteader had to live on the land and improve it by building a 12-by-14 dwelling and growing crops. After 5 years, the homesteader could file for his patent (or deed of title) by submitting proof of residency and the required improvements to a local land office."
"These files can contain a wealth of genealogical and legal information. Depending upon the type and time period of land entry, the case file may yield only a few facts already known to the researcher, or it may present new insights about ancestors, family history, title, and land use issues."
In my Great Grandfather's case, we already have known much about his life. Living long, writing and telling family stories, he left us with quite a record. I am one of the older great-grandchildren, and Grandpa lived to 104, so I was able to know him personally.
So what could this 42 page record do for me ?
In the stack of papers, there were witness statements, affidavits, and claimant verification forms. Ah, government and paperwork are not newlyweds, for sure. But in all these forms, between all the dry legalese, were pieces of my great grandparents' lives--the details that so often get brushed over in deference to bigger stories of special events and milestones.
A young married couple in the late Fall of 1914, John and Lura Patrick with their baby son, made a Homestead entry for 153 acres in Spanish Fork Canyon, Utah. In less than 2 weeks, with the help of three hired men, John had built their house-one room, 14' x 16'. I don't know if they felled the trees themselves or bought lumber, but either way we do know the wood did not come from the land he contracted. The site was described as clay, rock, and scrub oak-with no big timber for a house. Materials would have to be brought up by horse and wagon.
After building the house, now in November, the land had to be cleared in order to plant. In addition to his own two horses, John hired two men with teams, and they "cleared, grubbed, and plowed 18 acres of land; and planted 10 acres of wheat". Cold weather stopped any further land clearing, so John set to work on preparing fenceposts--160 of them.
So began a pattern of living on the ranch from Spring to December, planting and clearing, building and improving. Winters the family would travel back into town, rent a place to live, and John would find work, as a miner or blacksmith in order to raise money for the next Spring's provisions.
Setbacks and obstacles were ever-present. One year, he was "taken down" by appendicitis. Weeks bedridden and a stay at the Provo hospital, disrupted his farming-rendering 10 acres of wheat unsuitable for sale. It would be used as feed for the livestock. Another year, a flood swept over his land, leaving a layer of rocks over his fields. It took a month to haul the rock off.
To fence the entire tract took longer than one season, and left parts of his land unprotected. Range cattle had to be herded away. When his fence was complete, he had to deal with the angry government ranchers who had been accustomed to letting their herd water at his spring.
Over the years, they planted wheat, oats, and potatoes. A cellar was dug, and a well, also. At the end of five years, he was required to submit proof of all his improvements. Three additional witnesses attested to John's marital status and residency. In these certificates and witness papers are names my grandmother remembers from her youth. One of the men hired to help build the fence was named as John's step-brother.
Years passed after having been granted this land before John was able to buy a house in Springville. That first winter, the family did not get to live in their new home. John's load of seed potatoes for the next year's planting got wet on the wagon-ride down from the canyon. The family stayed somewhere else while the potatoes were spread out on the floor of the new house, being kept dry and warm, turned over repeatedly to keep them from rotting. If there was no Spring planting, there would be no money, and they would lose the house. Those potatoes got top priority.
My great-grandparents farmed their whole lives, providing for their family, one hard year at a time. For me, gardening is a hobby, kind of a therapeutic luxury. I sigh when my Amana orange tomatoes get blossom-end rot, and I wonder what I will ever do with all this basil.
Wednesday, June 13, 2012
Alternatively, this picture represents a variety of genealogical resources.
The larger building on the right housed the photo studio of George Edward Anderson, and he is the photographer responsible for this image. Below his studio is a store called "The Golden Rule"--the precursor to JC Penney. George Edward Anderson photographed much of Utah County-both street scenes and portraiture. Thousands of his photographs are in a searchable digital collection available online through BYU. You can type in a family name or location and possibly find your Utah County ancestor, their home, or place of business. I have found several.
Now, we have always had a copy of this picture--just not a very good one. Our copy was cropped and "stepped on" by being reproduced many times through the years. I wanted a better copy. It turns out this particular photo was NOT in the digital collection.
A friend from Springville with an ardent interest in history makes it a habit to attend the local Historical Society meetings, and to browse their archive of photos and newspapers. I asked him to keep a "lookout" for this picture. Upstairs from the Historical Society is the Springville Daughters of Utah Pioneers (DUP) Museum. They also have an extensive collection of photos, life sketches, and pioneer artifacts. It was in their collection that my friend found this much improved copy.
If your ancestor came to Utah during the Pioneer Era, chances are that you could find something relevant to your genealogy in one of the small town DUP museums, or even in the newly renovated State DUP Museum in Salt Lake City. Research is encouraged, and volunteer assistance is available at each location.
Not to be overlooked is the resource of friends and family. I had visited the DUP myself, and somehow not found this. The more people who are in on your search, the better your results will be.
Many photographers donated their negative plates to local universities. Additionally, your spinster great aunt who hoarded all those papers, photos, and journals ? She might have donated them to a college or municipal library. They could be just sitting there, waiting for you . . .
Monday, May 28, 2012
These are my grandmother's peonies.
As a side-effect of my parents' divorce and my father's remarriage, I have THREE grandmothers. When I was an adolescent, one of my younger siblings ( I can't recall which one) thought it wasn't fair that I had an extra grandmother. What can I say, I was lucky.
All three of my grandmothers had been young women during World War II. Perhaps this, along with traditions of the time, led to one of the common threads I experienced with each of them--Memorial Day visits to the cemetery.
While I remember taking flowers with each of them to their respective family plots, no one prepared for Memorial Day as thoroughly as Grandma Beth. She dedicated a large portion of her beautiful yard to beds of peonies and iris specifically for Memorial Day flower arrangements.
Honoring and remembering family members was lively and colorful--the flowers and the stories. Much of what I know about my ancestors was told to me in a cemetery.
Even gardening to me has generational pull...I have tried to gather parts of floral family history and carry the pieces with me. Iris, roses, and these peonies have history I remember every time they bloom.
Today is Memorial Day, and I will be going to the cemetery with my one remaining grandmother. We will undoubtedly run into cousins, and stories will be retold about the people whose grave sites we are visiting. This is tradition. What can I say--I am lucky.
Sunday, May 6, 2012
This is Faye, my grandmother's aunt. She holds the keys to one of the biggest mysteries in my family tree.
It is Faye's sister, Blanche, who I recently discovered to be my hidden great-grandmother. My grandmother Norma would have only been 5 years old when Blanche was murdered. Even before being orphaned, Norma was being raised by Faye and Blanche's parents as their own. I do not know when or how Norma was told about her true parentage, but the secret was kept for decades.
There were many reasons for the secrecy. By almost any measure, Faye and Blanche were the source of scandal for their family. Besides the more typical things such as divorce and illegitimate birth, both Faye and Blanche were involved in nefarious (and apparently profitable) activities. By all accounts, Faye was in charge. Blanche was the older sister, but never as tough as Faye.
The girls' father, Mose, was hard working, but poor. The best job he ever had was as a mechanic for the Denver Rio Grande Railroad. By the time this picture was taken, it was the Great Depression, and Mose was scraping by, herding sheep in the Utah mountains. Blanche had tried, and fairly succeeded, to marry her way out of poverty. Her first husband was from a well-off and respectable family. When Blanche married her second husband, Norma's father, they lived in an apartment in the rich side of town, where the rent was four times what her father Mose was paying for his house.
Faye left school early, and worked in a Salt Lake City ice cream parlor. Could this be where she met her first husband ? I don't know. I have yet to track down any civil or church document for their union. The only reason I even know his name is because one day, Faye's little brother was looking for his birth certificate. Rifling through the Victrola cabinet where his mother kept all important papers, Lee found a Post Office Wanted poster-there was the face of his uncle Philip Chadwick, Faye's husband. The flyer is long gone, but Lee pointed Philip out to me in a family group photo. The name is likely an alias, and I have not found any matching records of Faye or Philip.
I don't know what ever became of Philip, but Faye left Utah for Sacramento sometime before 1932. This picture was actually taken on one of her visits home. I imagine it was this trip when Blanche decided to try her luck in California. Her second divorce is dated 1934. Not much longer after this, Norma is listed in her grandparents' church congregation--as their daughter.
It was in the Coroner's inquest transcript of Blanche's murder that I found her alias--Dorothy Owens. Someone identifying herself as a sister was interviewed at the time, and gave her name as Patsy Owens. With these names, and an archivist's help, Blanche's mugshot as Dorothy was discovered at the Center for Sacramento History. Arrested with Blanche was a friend who used the alias Leta Owens. One look at her picture, and I could tell she was definitely NOT Faye. I visited the Center myself, and searched through the mugbooks--I could not find anyone who resembled Faye. Since the girls came west in 1933, and Blanche was killed in 1937, there was no census taken in that time. I did search City Directories, and found Dorothy and Leta, but not Faye.
As for the murder, Faye's account to the family and the coroner's inquest are vastly different. Reading the inquest, it is clearly fiction. Police corruption and vice are extensively documented in the newspapers of the time. According to the family story, both Faye and Leta fled Sacramento immediately following Blanche's death.
Faye went to Hawaii. She continued to return home on occasion, visits punctuated with trips to the bank to stash jewelry and cash. Faye carried a handgun, and her Hawaiian husband ran a Tailor shop in Hilo, supposedly as a front for his heroin trade. Faye's brother Lee could only tell me the husband's last name. Another marriage document I have yet to locate . . .
In 1961, Faye came home to Utah after some trouble in Hawaii. A friend had written home to Faye's mother, telling tales of outlandish behavior, public drunkenness, and morphine addiction. The friend said Faye had been taken to the hospital's psych ward. The friend's letter, and those from Faye before this incident, came from an area notorious in Hawaii for prostitution and opium.
Lee drove his mother to Salt Lake to retrieve Faye. They picked her up downtown-not at the airport. Her head was shaved and wrapped in a scarf to cover marks she said came from a fire. Supposedly the Tailor shop had burned down, and her husband died. Before getting in the car, Faye pulled some papers out of her purse, crumpled and threw them to the ground. She set them on fire, and when they were completely destroyed, got into the car to go home.
Faye's erratic behavior continued, and she was admitted several times for treatment at the State Hospital. I have read through her records, and not once did she give the true name of her Hawaiian husband. Faye never had children, and died in 1968-taking her secrets with her.
I wrote to the Hawaiian Police department, and was rewarded with four accident reports and one incident report. With these, I can place Faye and her husband in Hawaii as early as 1949. I also confirmed that her story of a fire and dead husband was not true. I waited excitedly for the 1940 census, since I now know the street she lived on while married. I searched the appropriate enumeration district and somehow cannot find her house number there, or any household that resembles hers. Now I am waiting for the indexing to be completed.
Her lifetime of eluding detection has colored and thwarted my research. I want clues to who really killed my great-grandmother in Sacramento, but without Faye's alias and their associates, I have only hypotheses.
Sunday, April 22, 2012
This is Julia Ann Clark Harrington's trunk. In 1860, she crossed the United States frontier as a widow, traveling with her adult children in a company led by her son-in-law Arba Lambson. In this trunk she packed what she could not leave behind. Julia was a registered midwife, and the one other piece of luggage she carried was a doctor's bag. After arriving in the Utah Valley, Julia continued as a midwife--her legacy is commemorated in The Daughters of the Utah Pioneers Museum.
A set of blue china dishes was brought to Utah in this trunk, some genealogical papers, and who can say what else. What items would Julia have considered precious or necessary for this new life ? She was not young or inexperienced--57 years old when she set out. What balance of practical and sentimental influenced her choices ? What experiences formed her expectations ?
All things considered, the trunk is in exceptional condition, preserved by a proud posterity. The embossed surface is clear, colors still sharp. This is not to say there are no rough edges, dents, or scrapes to be found. A functional item such as this does not fulfill its purpose without incurring wear or damage-the broken strap is said to have happened on the original voyage.
As with most known ancestors-whether pilgrims, pioneers, or revolutionaries--their histories are told and retold. Tragedies and victories alike are caressed by the repetition and become brilliant facets in the collective family memory. Our predecessors take on heroic properties and set a standard to which we aspire. But just as with this treasured heirloom, our grandmothers and grandfathers did not get their strengths or compassion without enduring human trials, nor were they pure saints. I would feel hopeless to ever honor my forbears if I believed they never struggled with choices like mine, made mistakes, or never asked forgiveness for some careless hurt.
Julia's trunk is not fancy, but it's well built and true. I'd like to think well built and true are lofty enough goals for me.
Tuesday, April 17, 2012
Lura Ann White Patrick-Grandma Patrick to me-was born in the frontier town of Mancos,Colorado in 1892. This is her Eighth Grade Graduation photo.
The family returned to Springville, Utah when Lura was ten years old. She married John Hulet Patrick and they raised eight children to adulthood. One baby girl died in infancy.
Her husband was a farmer, so Lura had plenty of work to do. She made her own soap from the fat rendered when her husband slaughtered pigs. This soap was used when she washed clothes--the old fashioned way--in pots of hot water she lifted, boiled, poured, stirred, and rinsed. She made bread daily, milked cows, and made butter. She traded this butter for goods and services--even paying the midwife in butter. She made the best pies.
She was smart and fair in teaching her children. Not one of them recalls her ever raising her voice in anger.
She excelled in gardening-cultivating roses and maintaining a large vegetable garden and fruit trees. She loved to browse through seed catalogs in her yearly preparations. Tagging along with her daughter (my grandmother)-I played in her garden while the grownups worked.
I treasure the memories of my childhood holidays--Thanksgivings at her house and Christmas Eve at my grandmother's house. I am willing to bet that every one of my first cousins would list in their top Holiday memories when Grandma Patrick gathered the kids of all ages around to read "Twas The Night Before Christmas".